China's Second National Report on

 

Implementation of the

 

Convention of Biological Diversity

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

by

 State Environmental Protection Administration of China

 

 

July 25, 2001

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

Project Organizer:

             

              State Environmental Protection Administration, China*

 

Project Participating Departments:

 

Ministry of Foreign Affairs, China

State Development and Planning Commission, China

Ministry of Education, China *

Ministry of Science and Technology, China *

Ministry of Public Security, China

Ministry of Finance, China

Ministry of Construction, China *

Ministry of Agriculture, China *

State Forestry Administration, China *

State Administration of Radio, Film and TV, China

State Administration of Industry and Commerce, China

General Customs Administration, China

Xinhua News Agency, China

Chinese Academy of Sciences*

State Intellectual Property Office, China

State Oceanic Administration, China *

State Traditional Chinese Medicine Administration, China

People's Daily

Guangming Daily

 

Project Implementing Institution:

           

            Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences under SEPA

 

 

 

 

 

Note: The departments or institutions above marked with a star have made their contributions to the compilation of this report.

 

 


Contents

 

 

Introductory tables...................................................................................................................................................... 1

 

Article 5 Cooperation.................................................................................................................................................. 6

Article 6 General measures for conservation and sustainable use..................................................................... 10

Article 7 Identification and monitoring................................................................................................................... 13

       Decisions on Taxonomy.................................................................................................................................... 18

Article 8 In situ conservation [excluding Articles 8h and 8j].............................................................................. 21

Article 8h Alien species............................................................................................................................................ 28

Article 8j Traditional knowledge and related provisions..................................................................................... 32

Article 9 Ex situ conservation.................................................................................................................................. 37

Article 10 Sustainable use of components of biological diversity..................................................................... 41

Article 11 Incentive measures.................................................................................................................................. 47

Article 12 Research and training.............................................................................................................................. 51

Article 13 Public education and awareness........................................................................................................... 54

Article 14 Impact assessment and minimizing adverse impacts.......................................................................... 58

Article 15 Access to genetic resources.................................................................................................................. 64

Article 16 Access to and transfer of technology.................................................................................................. 70

Article 17 Exchange of information......................................................................................................................... 73

Article 18 Technical and scientific cooperation.................................................................................................... 74

Article 19 Handling of biotechnology and distribution of its benefits.............................................................. 77

Article 20 Financial resources.................................................................................................................................. 80

Article 21 Financial mechanism................................................................................................................................ 85

Article 23 Conference of the Parties........................................................................................................................ 87

Article 24 Secretariat.................................................................................................................................................. 89

Article 25 Subsidiary body on scientific, technical and technological advice................................................. 90

Article 26 Reports...................................................................................................................................................... 90

 

Ecosystem approach................................................................................................................................................. 92

Inland water ecosystems.......................................................................................................................................... 93

Marine and coastal biological diversity................................................................................................................. 96

Agricultural biological diversity............................................................................................................................ 100

Forest biological diversity...................................................................................................................................... 108

Biological diversity of dry and sub-humid lands................................................................................................ 110

Operations of the Convention............................................................................................................................... 111

 

Concluding tables.................................................................................................................................................... 112

 

 


Please provide the following details on the origin of this report

Contracting Party

China

National Focal Point

Full name of the institution:

 

International Cooperation Department

State Environmental Protection Administration

Name and title of contact officer:

Mr. Zhang Shigang, Deputy Director General

Mailing address:

 

 

115 Xizhimen Nanxiaojie, Beijing, China

Telephone:

 

+86-10-66153366/1763

Fax:

 

+86-10-66151762

E-mail:

 

Interog@cenpok.net

Contact officer for national report (if different)

Full name of the institution:

 

Office of CBD Implementation, China

Name and title of contact officer:

Mr. Wang Dehui, Deputy Director General

Mailing address:

 

115 Xizhimen Nanxiaojie, Beijing, China

Telephone:

 

+86-10-66111453

Fax:

 

+86-10-66151762

E-mail:

 

Chshbai@sina.com

Submission

Signature of officer responsible for submitting national report:

 

 

Date of submission:

 

 


Please provide summary information on the process by which this report has been prepared, including information on the types of stakeholders who have been actively involved in its preparation and on material which was used as a basis for the report

The process by which this report has been prepared is as follows:

1.        Pre-investigation for compilation of this report

Upon request by the Office of CBD Implementation of China, the Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences under the State Environmental Protection Administration of China (SEPA) started the pre-investigation for the compilation of the Second National Report to the Convention on Biological Diversity in September 2000. The work plan and outline of the report were also drafted.

2.        The First Meeting of the Coordination Group for CBD Implementation in China convened

The Coordination Group for CBD Implementation, composed of 20 departments and institutions under the State Council, met on February 28, 2001. During the meeting, a leading group for preparation of the Second National Report was established, and the work plan was approved. Responsibilities and tasks assigned to each department were clarified.

3.        The First Expert Group Meeting convened

The Expert Group, composed of experts appointed by SEPA, Ministry of Education, Ministry of Science and Technology, Ministry of Construction, Ministry of Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Forestry Administration, and State Oceanic Administration, held its first meeting on March 9, 2001. During the meeting, discussions were made on the requirements, progress and limiting factors of each articles, work plans and decisions of the convention, as well as the indicators, information and cases needed for preparation of the Second National Report.

4.        Collection of information and case studies

Information regarding measures adopted, progress made, experiences and lessons learned, as well as problems encountered during CBD implementation in China, were collected nation-wide from all relevant departments and institutions.

5.        Drafting the Second National Report

By end of March 2001, all departments involved had finished the compilation of the sub-reports respectively in accordance with the requirements and format endorsed by the Conference of Parties. The expert group then compiled the first draft of the Second National Report.

6.        The Second Expert Group Meeting convened

The Expert Group met for the second time on April 6, 2001, discussing in more detail on the first draft of the report. Further revisions and amendments were made, and the draft report for comments was formulated.

7.        The Second Meeting of the Coordination Group of CBD Implementation in China convened

The Draft Report for Comments was submitted to each member institution of the Coordination Group on April 13, 2001. An extended meeting of the Coordination Group was held on April 27, discussing and reviewing the Draft Report at the national level. Besides the member departments and institutions of the Coordination Group, the experts of the report compilation group and some specially invited experts also attended the meeting. The meeting approved in principle the Draft Second National Report (for Comments), and decided to submit it to Ministry of Foreign Affairs for reviewing and approval after further revision.

8. Submission and approval of the Second National Report

In accordance with comments of the Meeting of the Coordination Group on April 27, the report was further revised, and the Second National Report (Draft for Reviewing and Approval) was formulated and submitted to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

9.        Translation and submission of the Second National Report

The Second National Report was translated into English and submitted to the Executive Secretary, Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity.

 

The following documents were referenced during the compilation of this report:

[1]          Department of Nature & Ecology Conservation of SEPA, Report of Ecological Issues in China., China Environmental Sciences Press, Beijing, 1999

[2]          GEF, Report of the GEF to the Fifth Meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity, UNEP/CBD/COP/5/7

[3]          GEF, Report of the GEF to the Fourth Meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity.

[4]          Glowka, L., et al., A Guide to the Convention on Biological Diversity, IUCN Gland and Cambridge, 1994

[5]          Hu Zhiang & Zhang Yazhong, Genetic Diversity of Animals and Plants in China. Zhejiang Science and Technology Press, Hangzhou,  1997

[6]          Lu Wencong & Ni Qi, Marketing Mechanism and International System for Conservation and Use of Plant Genetic Resources. Journal of Natural Resources, 15(3), 285-289, 2000

[7]          Ministry of Agriculture, China Yearbook of Agriculture (1999-2000). China Agriculture Press, Beijing, 1999, 2000

[8]          Report Compilation Group, China Biodiversity Conservation Action Plan. China Environmental Science Press, Beijing, 1994

[9]          SEPA, China Yearbook of Environmental Statistics (1999-2000). China Environmental Sciences Press, Beijing, 1999, 2000

[10]       SEPA, China's National Report on Implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity. China Environmental Sciences Press, Beijing, 1998

[11]       SEPA, Chin's Biodiversity: A Country Study.  China Environmental Sciences Press, Beijing, 1998

[12]       SEPA, National Biosafety Framework of China. China Environmental Sciences Press, Beijing, 2000

[13]       Shi Baozhong, Environmental Impact Assessment for Construction Projects. China Environmental Science Press, Beijing, 1999

[14]       State Forestry Administration, China National Wetlands Conservation Action Plan. China Forestry Press, Beijing, 2000

[15]       State Forestry Administration, China Yearbook of Forestry (1999-2000). China Forestry Press, Beijing, 1999, 2000

[16]       State Planning Commission, State Science and Technology Commission, et al, China Agenda 21 – China White Book on Population, Environment and Development in 21st Century. China Environmental Sciences Press, Beijing, 1994

[17]       Xue Dayuan & Gao Zhenning, Technical Notes and Implementation Strategy for Convention on Biological Diversity. China Environmental Science Press, Beijing, 1995

[18]       Xue Dayuan, Study on National Strategy for Genetic Resource Protection. Journal of Natural Resources, 12(1), 22-28, 1997

 

Please provide information on any particular circumstances in your country that are relevant to understanding the answers to the questions in this report

N/A


The COP has established programmes of work that respond to a number of Articles. Please identify the relative priority accorded to each theme and the adequacy of resources. This will allow subsequent information on implementation of each Article to be put into context. There are other questions on implementation of the programmes of work at the end of these guidelines.

 

Inland water ecosystems

1.     What is the relative priority for implementation of this work programme in your country?

a) High

b) Medium

 

c) Low

 

d) Not relevant

 

2.     To what extent are the resources available adequate for meeting the obligations and recommendations made?

a) Good

 

b) Adequate

 

c) Limiting

d) Severely limiting

 

 

Marine and coastal biological diversity

3.     What is the relative priority for implementation of this work programme in your country?

a) High

 

b) Medium

c) Low

 

d) Not relevant

 

4.     To what extent are the resources available adequate for meeting the obligations and recommendations made?

a) Good

 

b) Adequate

 

c) Limiting

d) Severely limiting

 

 

Agricultural biological diversity

5.     What is the relative priority for implementation of this work programme in your country?

a) High

 

b) Medium

c) Low

 

d) Not relevant

 

6.     To what extent are the resources available adequate for meeting the obligations and recommendations made?

a) Good

 

b) Adequate

 

c) Limiting

d) Severely limiting

 

 

Forest biological diversity

7.     What is the relative priority for implementation of this work programme in your country?

a) High

b) Medium

 

c) Low

 

d) Not relevant

 

8.     To what extent are the resources available adequate for meeting the obligations and recommendations made?

a) Good

 

b) Adequate

 

c) Limiting

d) Severely limiting

 

 

Biological diversity of dry and sub-humid lands

9.     What is the relative priority for implementation of this work programme in your country?

a) High

 

b) Medium

c) Low

 

d) Not relevant

 

10.  To what extent are the resources available adequate for meeting the obligations and recommendations made?

a) Good

 

b) Adequate

 

c) Limiting

d) Severely limiting

 

 


Further comments on work programmes and priorities

China attaches great importance to the work program on biodiversity of inland water ecosystems, taking it as a priority action plan for CBD implementation in China, and has formulated the China National Wetlands Conservation Action Plan in 2000. Nevertheless, as a developing country, China lacks the technical and financial capacity for comprehensive implementation of the priority action plan for wetlands protection. The fund for work program on biodiversity in inland water ecosystems is also limited.

China always attaches importance to the protection of marine and coastal biological diversity, for which a series of policies, regulations and strategies have been established. A number of management approaches and technical measures have been taken in the aspect of conservation and sustainable development. Especially, the formulation of Blue Water Action Plan in Bohai Sea and the Integrated Renovation Plan in Bohai Sea strengthened the administration for biological diversity conservation in key marine areas. Nevertheless, due to the difficulty of the work and its high demand for fund and technologies, the input from the government can not meet the demand of the actual protection program. Therefore, the work program in this area can not be a high priority. The input for protection of marine and coastal biodiversity needs to be increased and more resources need to be obtained from home and abroad, so as to meet the demand of the actual practice.

The protection of agricultural biological diversity has been listed in the priority action plan for CBD implementation in China. China also formulated its China Biodiversity Conservation Action Plan for Agricultural Sectors and the China Biological Germplasm Resources Conservation Action Plan. Nevertheless, due to its large population, China first of all has to tackle the problem of grain production for near 1.3 billion of population. The agricultural bio-diversity conservation is then actually as medium priority. China also has a poor financial capacity for an overall implementation of the action plan for agricultural biodiversity conservation. The financial resource is limited. For example, the Guangzhou wild rice needs urgent in situ protection, but the government has no enough funds at present to establish a protected area.

China also attaches great importance to the protection of forest biological diversity and has formulated the China Biodiversity Conservation Action Plan for Forestry and the National Ecological Environment Construction Plan. Large amount of funds has been invested in the construction of protective forest system and the conservation of natural forest resources. As the work of forest biodiversity conservation in China is very heavy, we face the fund shortage at both national and local levels.

For a long time, the Chinese government has taken major actions for restoration and re-construction of the deteriorated or degraded ecosystems in dry and sub-humid lands. These include the project of prevention and control of desertification, the project of preventive forests in Three-North areas and the project of re-afforestation and restoration of grasslands from cultivated lands. The focus is on the ecological restoration and construction in dry and sub-humid areas. The conservation of biological diversity in the area can only be listed as medium priority. The ecological deterioration and ecological degradation are very serious in dry and sub-humid lands in China, resulting in a heavy work load for ecological construction and conservation, which requires continued technical and financial supports from developed countries and international communities.

 

Article 5 Cooperation

11.  What is the relative priority afforded to implementation of this Article and the associated decisions by your country?

a)  High

b)  Medium

 

c)  Low

 

12.  To what extent are the resources available adequate for meeting the obligations and recommendations made?

a) Good

 

b) Adequate

 

c)  Limiting 

d)  Severely limiting

 

Further comments on relative priority and on availability of resources

The Chinese government attaches high importance to and is active in the bilateral, multilateral and non-governmental cooperation in the field of biological diversity conservation. From 1991 to 1999, China has received a total of 23.6114 million USD of GEF grant. Through international cooperation, China has completed its "China's Biodiversity: A Country Study", and formulated China Biodiversity Conservation Action Plan, Compendium of Development Plan of Nature Reserves in China (1996-2010), China National Wetlands Conservation Action Plan, and National Biosafety Framework of China. Nature reserve management, conservation and sustainable use of wetlands biodiversity, conservation of marine and coastal biodiversity, protection of wild animals, afforestation, training and education on biodiversity were conducted, which greatly promoted the conservation of biodiversity in China. China will further promote the international cooperation to strengthen the conservation of biodiversity.

China is one of the countries in the world with richest biological diversity. It is also the largest developing country. Due a variety of reasons, its ecological deterioration is still serious and the biological diversity is severely threatened, which brings a very heavy workload for the conservation of biological diversity. The funding support from international sources is far from enough to cover the incremental cost resulted from biodiversity conservation in China. Although the Chinese government has put large investment on its biodiversity conservation, there is still a great gap between supply and actual demand. This requires a continued necessary support from the international society to China in both the technical and financial aspects.

 

13.  Is your country actively cooperating with other Parties in respect of areas beyond national jurisdiction for the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity?  

a) bilateral cooperation (please give details below)

b) international programmes (please give details below)

c) international agreements (please give details below)

 

Decision IV/4. Status and trends of the biological diversity of inland water ecosystems and options for conservation and sustainable use

14.  Has your country developed effective cooperation for the sustainable management of transboundary watersheds, catchments, river basins and migratory species through bilateral and multilateral agreements?  

a) no

 

b) yes - limited extent (please give details below)

c) yes - significant extent (please give details below)

 

d) not applicable

 

 

Decision IV/15. The relationship of the CBD with the CSD and biodiversity-related conventions, other international agreements, institutions and processes or relevance

15.  Has your country developed management practices for transboundary protected areas?

a) no

 

b) yes - limited extent (please give details below)

c) yes - significant extent (please give details below)

 

d) not relevant

 

 

Decision V/21. Co-operation with other bodies

16.  Has your country collaborated with the International Biodiversity Observation Year of DIVERSITAS, and ensured complementarity with the initiative foreseen to be undertaken by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization and the Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity to increase scientific knowledge and public awareness of the crucial role of biodiversity for sustainable development?

a) no

 

b) to a limited extent

 

c) to a significant extent

 

Decision V/27.  Contribution of the Convention on Biological Diversity to the ten-year review of progress achieved since the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development

17.  Is your country planning to highlight and emphasize biological diversity considerations in its contribution to the ten-year review of progress since the Earth Summit?

a) no

 

b) yes

 

Further comments on implementation of this Article

China has conducted effective international cooperation in the field of conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity, actively participated in the negotiation of international conventions and regional multilateral actions. Bilateral cooperation has been strengthened continually and the non-governmental cooperation has been very active.

1.  Active participation in the implementation and negotiation of relevant international conventions

China acceded the International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling in 1980, Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora in 1981, Convention for the Protection of World Culture and Natural Heritage in 1985, International Tropical Timber Agreement in 1986, Convention on Wetlands of International Importance Especially as Waterfowl Habitat in 1992, and Convention on Biological Diversity in 1993. China also ratified the United Nations Convention on Prevention and Control of Desertification in December 1996, signed the Rotterdam Convention (PIC) on August 24, 1999, and signed the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety on August 8, 2000. China actively participated in the negotiation on the above international conventions related with conservation of biological diversity, and took a serious attitude towards the participation in the relevant international meetings and activities.

In 1981, the Chinese government and the Japanese government signed the Sino-Japan Agreement on the Protection of Migratory Birds. In 1986, China and Australia signed the Sino-Australia Agreement for the Protection of Migratory Birds and Their Habitat. In 1988, China and the former Soviet Union signed the Agreement on Fishery. In 1993, China and Russia initialed the Agreement for the Protection of Fish Propagation in Border Water along Heilong River and Wusuli River. In 1990, China and Mongolia signed the Cooperation Agreement on Protection of Natural Environment.

2.  Multilateral cooperation

China Nature Reserve Management Project funded by GEF started in the second half of 1995. The World Bank is the implementing agency, and the domestic executing institutions are the State Forestry Administration, provincial forestry departments in Yunan, Hubei, Jiangxi, Shaanxi and Fujian, nature reserves of Xishuangbanna in Yunnan, Lake Poyang in Jiangxi, Wuyi Mountain in Fujian, Shengnongjia in Hubei, and nature reserves of  Fuping, Zhouzhi, Niubeiliang, Dabaishan and Changqing in Qinling, Shaanxi, and Wuyishan Nature Reserve in Jiangxi, and Changqing Forestry Bureau in Shaanxi.

On February 24, 1999, GEF approved the project summary of Conservation and Sustainable Use of Wetland Biodiversity in China. The project started formally on July 19, 2000, and cosponsored by GEF, UNDP and Australian Agency for Development Assistance. The duration of this project is 5 years (2000-2004). The project scope covers the Sanjiang plain in Heilongjiang Province, the coastal wetlands in Yancheng of Jiangsu Province, wetlands in Lake Dongting in Hunan Province, and Ruoergai swamp wetlands in Sichuan and Gansu. The implementation of the project will not only give a better protection of the wetland biodiversity in the project areas so as to effectively ensure the local sustainable social and economic development, but also make a demonstration and gain experiences for wetland conservation nationwide.

With the support from GEF, China also implemented the project preparation for wetland biodiversity conservation in Sanjiang plain, the project of biodiversity conservation in Luobupo Nature Reserve (e.g. wild camel), and the project of National Biosafety Framework of China. China also took part in the project of biodiversity conservation in Tumen River area.

With the support from the World Bank, China implemented the project of national afforestation, the project of development and conservation of forest resources, the project of forestry development in poverty areas, and the project of sustainable forestry development. The implementation of these projects accelerated the pace of afforestation and promoted the conservation and management of the forest resources. It also helped the realisation of the target for increasing the forest coverage and facilitated the sustainable forestry development.

3.  Bilateral Cooperation

China actively conducted the bilateral cooperation in the field of biodiversity conservation. Under the support from Canadian International Development Agency, China and Canada jointly implemented the project of Policy Study on Sustainable Management of Nature Reserves in China, the project of Capacity Building on Regulation and Technical Guidelines for Biosafety Management in China, and the project of Biodiversity Conservation and Community Development in Inner Mongolia Region.

During July 5-7, 2000, the Third Meeting of Tri-Party Committee of China, Mongolia and Russia on Joint Nature Reserves was convened in Manchuri, Inner Mongolia Region of China. The three parties discussed on the implementation of the Agreement between China, Mongolia and Russia on Joint Establishment of Nature Reserves, and summarised the problems encountered and the experiences gained. From July 14 to 20, 2000, the Sino-Mongolia Workshop on Transboundary Nature Reserves was also held in Manchuri.

China and Germany convened the China-Germany 2000 Environmental Cooperation Conference in Beijing. The two countries cooperatively implemented the project of Afforestation in West Shaanxi, the Second Phase of Ecological Afforestation in West Shaanxi, the project of Prevention of Desertification and Afforestation in Chifeng of Inner Mongolia and Chaoyang of Liaoning Province, the project of Ecological Afforestation in Hebei Province, the project of Natural Resource Conservation in Nature Reserves of Sichuan Province, the project of Monitoring and Management Information System of the Three-North Protective Forest System, and the project of Forestry Education, Training and Advanced Studies.

China and Netherlands implemented the project of Forest Resource Conservation and Community Development, and the project of Monitoring of Desertification using Remote Sensing.

On July 15, 1998, China and Japan signed on the project of Equipment for Soil Conservation in Upstream of Hanjiang River, in which the grant from Japan was used to build up water conserving forest at upper reach of Hanjiang River and seed-breeding in Hubei Province. China and Japan also conducted a joint investigation and study on black-tide, a study on subtropical circumfluence, and a study on the environmental load from rivers at specified areas in the East Sea and its impact on the marine ecosystems.

In 1997, China and the United States signed an agreement on sister mangrove nature reserves. In 1999, the two sides convened the Sino-US Workshop on Management of Marine Nature Reserves in China, discussing extensively on experiences, technologies, practices, problems and measures regarding the management of marine nature reserves. At present, the two countries are conducting cooperative studies in Sanya Coral Reef Nature Reserve in Hainan, Mangrove Nature Reserve in Guangxi, and the Ancient Coast and Wetland Nature Reserve in Tianjin. The formulation of mid and long term cooperation plans for integrated coastal management is now underway.

In 1997, the First Meeting of the Joint Committee for Sino-Korea Cooperation on Marine Science and Technology was held in Korea. As of today, the Joint Committee has met for a total of 4 times. In 1996, the cooperative project of oceanic circulation dynamics in the Yellow Sea was initiated. In 1998, the project of sedimentation dynamics in the Yellow Sea started.

4. Non-governmental cooperation

In 1996, China joined IUCN as a country member. The two sides jointly convened the First Forum on Biological Diversity in Asia. In April 2000, China joined the Wetland International. China also conducted a joint project with WWF for protection of Giant Panda and its habitats, and also jointly conducted an international workshop on conservation and management of biological diversity in Tibet. IFAW supported China on commending of nature reserves in China and the work of wild life protection. Relevant societies and non-governmental organizations in China also attended some international meetings regarding the biological diversity which are organized by international NGOs.

 

Article 6 General measures for conservation and sustainable use

18.  What is the relative priority afforded to implementation of this Article and the associated decisions by your country?

a)  High

b)  Medium

 

c)  Low

 

19.  To what extent are the resources available adequate for meeting the obligations and recommendations made?

a) Good

 

b) Adequate

 

c)  Limiting 

d)  Severely limiting

 

Further comments on relative priority and on availability of resources

The conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity are beneficial to the sustainable development of the national economy and for increasing the living standard of the people. China has taken the environmental protection as one of its basic national policies, and is carrying out the principle “to conduct the ecological conservation and the ecological construction at the same time” and “to attach equal importance to pollution prevention and control and to the ecological conservation”. China has actively taken actions on the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, and formulated a series of policies, laws, regulations, plans and measures in this field.

China is one of the largest developing countries with broad territory and large population. Its environmental pollution and ecological deterioration are severe. Therefore, the task for biodiversity conservation is very heavy, whereas the financial resources on the conservation of biological diversity are limited.

 

20.  What is the status of your national biodiversity strategy (6a)?

a) none

b) early stages of development

 

c) advanced stages of development

 

d) completed2

 

e) completed and adopted2

 

f) reports on implementation available

 

21.  What is the status of your national biodiversity action plan (6a)?

a) none

 

b) early stages of development

 

c) advanced stages of development

 

d) completed2

 

e) completed and adopted2

 

f) reports on implementation available

22.  Do your national strategies and action plans cover all articles of the Convention (6a)?

a) some articles only

 

b) most articles

      

c) all articles

 

23.  Do your national strategies and action plans cover integration of other sectoral activities (6b)?

a) no

 

b) some sectors

 

c) all major sectors

     

d) all sectors

 

 

Decision II/7 and Decision III/9 Consideration of Articles 6 and 8

24.  Is action being taken to exchange information and share experience on the national action planning process with other Contracting Parties?

a) little or no action

 

b) sharing of strategies, plans and/or case‑studies

c) regional meetings

25.  Do all of your country’s strategies and action plans include an international cooperation component?

a) no

 

b) yes

      

26.  Are your country’s strategies and action plans coordinated with those of neighbouring countries?

a) no

 

b) bilateral/multilateral discussions under way

 

c) coordinated in some areas/themes

     

d) fully coordinated

 

e) not applicable

 

27.  Has your country set measurable targets within its strategies and action plans?

a) no

 

b) early stages of development

 

c) advanced stages of development

 

d) programme in place

     

e) reports on implementation available

 

If a developing country Party or a Party with economy in transition -

28.  Has your country received support from the financial mechanism for the preparation of its national strategy and action plan?

a) no

 

b) yes

       

If yes, which was the Implementing Agency (UNDP/UNEP/World Bank)?

UNEP, UNDP

 

Decisions III/21. Relationship of the Convention with the CSD and biodiversity-related conventions

29.  Are the national focal points for the CBD and the competent authorities of the Ramsar Convention, Bonn Convention and CITES cooperating in the implementation of these conventions to avoid duplication?

a) no

 

b) yes – limited extent

c) yes – significant extent

 

 

Further comments on implementation of this Article

China has formulated a series of laws, regulations, plans and programs for the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity.

1.  Laws and regulations on conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity

The Constitution of China regulates that the state shall ensure the reasonable utilisation of natural resources and protect the rare and valuable fauna and flora. China also promulgated and implemented a series of laws and regulations related with conservation of biological diversity, including, for example, Law on Environmental Protection, Law on Forest, Law on Water, Law on Marine Environmental Protection, Law on Grasslands, Law on Protection of Wild Animals, Regulation on Nature Reserves, and Regulation on Protection of Wild Plants.

2.  Action plan for conservation of biological diversity

Under the support of UNDP/GEF, China compiled its China Biodiversity Conservation Action Plan in 1994, in which the priority of ecosystems for biodiversity conservation and the priority of species under protection are determined. It clarifies the objectives in 7 aspects and raises 26 priority action programs and 18 priority projects that require immediate implementation. The Chinese government also compiled and promulgated China Agenda 21 – White Book on Population, Environment and Development in the 21 Century in China. Chapter 15 “Conservation of Biological Diversity” of the White Book defines the policies, targets, priority areas and projects for biodiversity conservation. At the end of 1997, the State Council approved the " China's Biodiversity: A Country Study", which determined the objectives of national capacity building for conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity in China. It covers areas of legislation, institutional construction, human resources, policy framework, protection facilities, science and technology, education and public participation as well as international cooperation. In 1999, China formulated its National Biosafety Framework of China, which gives the policy framework and regulation framework for national biosafety management, technical principle framework for risk assessment and management of GMOs and their products, and requirements for national capacity building for biosafety management.

The Chinese government has promulgated China Trans-Century Green Engineering Plan, National Ecological Environment Construction Plan, and Compendium of National Ecological Conservation. China set up its Compendium of Development Plan for Nature Reserves in China (1996-2010), specifying the targets and specific programs for nature reserves planning nationwide. China also formulated the China Biodiversity Conservation Action Plan for Forestry, the China Biodiversity Conservation Action Plan in Agricultural Sectors, the China Marine Biodiversity Conservation Action Plan, the China National Wetlands Conservation Action Plan, Action Plan for Ex situ Protection of Giant Panda, etc. These ensure the integration of activities of major sectors into the national action plans.

3.  Action programs for sustainable use of biological diversity

For sustainable use of biological diversity, China implemented the projects for conservation of natural forests, construction of key protective forests in Three-North and in the mid and lower reaches of Yangtz, restoration of forests and grasslands from cultivated farms, sand protection and control around Beijing, and construction of forestry bases of fast-growing trees. China also applied quota system of tree falling in forests, designation of prohibiting areas and periods for fishing, and the licensing system on fishery. Release of fish to propagate population size is conducted in fresh lakes and oceans, and the licensing system is applied in farming and reproduction of key national protected animals. The bases for Chinese herb production are established for herb planting. The quarantine system is implemented for import and export goods to prevent the dispersion of plant diseases and insect pests. Measures like grass planting, flying seeding for pasture and fencing closure for grasslands and trees have also been taken. In some nature reserves, China also conducted sustainable tourism activities and management through public involvement, to achieve the coordinated development of both the nature reserves and the communities.

4.  Requirements for capacity building for general measures of conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity

China has been making efforts, especially by increasing investment, to facilitate the implementation of the above action plans and programs, many of which have achieved good results. Nevertheless, due to the big gap between the actual inputs and demand, some plans have not been effectively implemented. Therefore, financial support and technical assistance are needed from international society, to ensure the smooth implementation of these plans and programs.

Many of the national policies and reports contain strategies concerning about conservation of biological diversity in China. Nevertheless, we don’t have a complete and comprehensive national strategy to guide the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity in the 21st century in China. In addition, China formulated its Action Plan in 1993. As the CBD implementation continues, COPs have made a series decisions on the work programs in dry and sub-humid, grassland, forest, marine, inland water and agricultural ecosystems, as well as on access to genetic resources and benefit sharing, traditional knowledge, clearing-house mechanism, prevention of alien species and technical transfer, etc. China started its Great West Development strategy in 2000. In this circumstance, the Action Plan has no longer been fully adaptable to the situation home and abroad. It needs to be further revised and improved, and then specific implementation plans should be plotted. These may include, for example, action plans for prevention and control of alien species, for access to genetic resources and benefit sharing, for traditional knowledge protection, and for protection of typical marine ecosystems. Action plans for biodiversity conservation at provincial level should also be formulated. In addition, supporting regulations and policies should be formulated as well.

 

Article 7 Identification and monitoring

30.  What is the relative priority afforded to implementation of this Article and the associated decisions by your country?

a)  High

 

b)  Medium

c)  Low

 

31.  To what extent are the resources available adequate for meeting the obligations and recommendations made?

a) Good

 

b) Adequate

 

c)  Limiting 

d)  Severely limiting

 

Further comments on relative priority and on availability of resources

For many years, China has conducted investigation on its major ecosystems, key species and important genetic resources, and monitored on its major ecosystems and key species. This provides the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity with large amount of fundamental data. Nevertheless, due to the financial and technical reasons, the identification and monitoring can only be rated as medium priority.

The investigation and monitoring require large amount of funds. The fund and equipment at present cannot meet the requirement of the actual work. China will further enlarge the input in this aspect and we also need more technical and financial support from international society in order to meet the demand of the work.

 

32.  Does your country have an ongoing inventory programme at species level (7a)?

a) minimal activity

 

b) for key groups (such as threatened or endemic species) or indicators

c) for a range of major groups

 

d) for a comprehensive range of species

 

33.  Does your country have an ongoing inventory programme at ecosystem level (7a)?

a) minimal activity

 

b) for ecosystems of particular interest only

 

c) for major ecosystems

d) for a comprehensive range of ecosystems

 

34.  Does your country have an ongoing inventory programme at genetic level (7a)?

a) minimal activity

 

b) minor programme in some sectors

 

c) major programme in some sectors

d) major programme in all relevant sectors

 

35.  Does your country have ongoing monitoring programmes at species level (7a)?

a) minimal activity

 

b) for key groups (such as threatened or endemic species) or indicators

c) for a range of major groups

 

d) for a comprehensive range of species

 

36.  Does your country have ongoing monitoring programmes at ecosystem level (7b)?

a) minimal activity

 

b) for ecosystems of particular interest only

 

c) for major ecosystems

d) for a comprehensive range of ecosystems

 

37.  Does your country have ongoing monitoring programmes at genetic level (7b)?

a) minimal activity

 

b) minor programme in some sectors

c) major programme in some sectors

 

d) major programme in all relevant sectors

 

38.  Has your country identified activities with adverse affects on biodiversity (7c)?

a) limited understanding

 

b) threats well known in some areas, not in others

 

c) most threats known, some gaps in knowledge

d) comprehensive understanding

 

e) reports available

 

39.  Is your country monitoring these activities and their effects (7c)?

a) no

 

b) early stages of programme development

c) advanced stages of programme development

 

d) programme in place

 

e) reports on implementation available

 

40.  Does your country coordinate information collection and management at the national level (7d)?

a) no

 

b) early stages of programme development

c) advanced stages of programme development

 

d) programme in place

 

e) reports on implementation available

 

 

Decision III/10 Identification, monitoring and assessment

41.  Has your country identified national indicators of biodiversity?

a) no

 

b) assessment of potential indicators underway

c) indicators identified (if so, please describe below)

 

42.  Is your country using rapid assessment and remote sensing techniques?

a) no

 

b) assessing opportunities

 

c) yes, to a limited extent

d) yes, to a major extent

 

e) reports on implementation available

 

43.  Has your country adopted a “step-by-step” approach to implementing Article 7 with initial emphasis on identification of biodiversity components (7a) and activities having adverse effects on them (7c)?

a) no

 

b) not appropriate to national circumstances

 

c) yes

44.  Is your country cooperating with other Contracting Parties on pilot projects to demonstrate the use of assessment and indicator methodologies?

a) no

b) yes (if so give details below)

 

45.  Has your country prepared any reports of experience with application of assessment methodologies and made these available to other Contracting Parties?

a) no

b) yes

 

46.  Is your country seeking to make taxonomic information held in its collections more widely available?

a) no relevant collections

 

b) no action

 

c) yes (if so, please give details below)

 

Decision V/7. Identification, monitoring and assessment, and indicators

47.  Is your country actively involved in co-operating with other countries in your region in the field of indicators, monitoring and assessment?

a) no

 

b) limited co-operation

 

c) extensive co-operation on some issues

d) extensive co-operation on a wide range of issues

 

48.  Has your country made available case studies concerning the development and implementation of assessment, monitoring and indicator programmes?

a) no

b) yes - sent to the Secretariat

 

c) yes – through the national CHM

 

d) yes – other means (please specify)

 

49.  Is your country assisting other Parties to increase their capacity to develop indicator and monitoring programmes?

a) no

b) providing training

 

c) providing direct support

 

d) sharing experience

 

e) other (please describe)

 

 

Further comments on implementation of this Article

China has established the monitoring networks on major ecosystems and key groups of species and a lot of investigation and monitoring work have been conducted through the systems. As far as the systems for monitoring are concerned, China has set up the monitoring systems for forest resources, a monitoring center on wetland resources, a monitoring center on wild fauna and flora resources, and a monitoring center on desertification. China has set up a monitoring network on agricultural environments, which includes general monitoring center on agricultural environments, a monitoring center on fishery environments, a monitoring center on cultivation and grassland environments, and 626 monitoring stations on agricultural environments. The national marine environmental monitoring system has been set up, consisting of satellites, aircraft, ships, floating and coastal stations. China has also set up a general environmental monitoring station and over 2000 environmental monitoring stations. Sixty-four ecological positioning study stations have been established and a network for study on ecosystems in China has been set up, conducting for many years the study on structure, function, and evolution of the ecosystems with many research findings.

China conducts first-class investigation on forests at national level every 5 years, to provide first-hand information on the status and trend of national forestry resources. As required, provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities can arrange the second-class investigation, to provide scientific basis for compilation of forestry programs and management of forest resources at local level. At present, China has finished its 5th national investigation on forest resources.

The national wetland investigation started in 1995. Nevertheless, due to limited fund and technology, only preliminary investigation has been taken. The program is expected to complete in 2002.

China has conducted a total of seven round big-scaled investigations on the quality of agricultural eco-environments and its changing patterns. The investigation and assessment on agricultural resources and on the dynamic movement of the eco-environments were conducted. Investigations were also done on ecosystems of different types of grasslands. In addition, we also carried out the study on the structure, function and productivity of grassland ecosystems and monitoring on sample regions.

In order to get a comprehensive knowledge of the general status of the marine environmental quality in China, we performed a uniformed investigation from 1997 to 1999, on marine environmental pollution in 11 coastal provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities. The areas under investigation covered all the marine area under jurisdiction of China. Through this investigation, a lot of information and data on marine and coastal biological diversity were obtained. China also monitors the typical marine ecosystems like mangrove, coral reef, and up-going streams

China initiated a national investigation on terrestrial wild fauna resources in 1995 and the national investigation on key protected wild flora resources in 1996 in order to provide scientific basis for the protection of rare and endangered species. At present, all of the provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities have completed the on-site investigation, and entered data processing and analysis. 

China conducts a national investigation on its nature reserves every two years. From 2000 on, the statistical investigation on nature reserves will be conducted each year, including data of the number, areas, categories, classes, target species as well as regional distribution and sectoral distribution of nature reserves. Some nature reserves in China also conducted the monitoring on natural resources and biological diversity, established monitoring network on rare and endangered species like Giant Panda, as well as the monitoring cooperation network on migratory birds like cranes and Anseriformes.

In 2000, China conducted an investigation on the ecosystems in West China, in order to understand the background of the ecosystems in the West region, therefore providing basis for the conservation of biological diversity in the region.

Although China has done some work on the investigation and monitoring on biological diversity and made some progress, there is still large gap from the requirement of the Convention. The application of quick assessment and remote sensing technology is quite limited. The indicators and methodologies for investigation and monitoring need to be standardized and normalized. The approaches to monitoring are not advanced. The sharing of data between different sectors and among whole society has not been achieved. The institutional capacity for monitoring is weak, and the expertise of the monitoring staff needs to be improved. Due to the limitation of expertise and fund, China has neither provided any report on the experiences of applying assessment methodologies, nor the case study report on the formulation and implementation of programs of assessment, monitoring and indicators.

 

Decisions on Taxonomy

Decision IV/1 Report and recommendations of the third meeting of SBSTTA [part]

50.  Has your country carried out a national taxonomic needs assessment, and/or held workshops to determine national taxonomic priorities?

a) no

b) early stages of assessment

 

c) advanced stages of assessment

 

d) assessment completed

 

51.  Has your country developed a national taxonomic action plan?

a) no

b) early stages of development

 

c) advanced stages of development

 

d) action plan in place

 

e) reports on implementation available

 

52.  Is your country making available appropriate resources to enhance the availability of taxonomic information?

a) no

 

b) yes, but this does not cover all known needs adequately

c) yes, covering all known needs

 

53.  Is your country encouraging bilateral and multilateral training and employment opportunities for taxonomists, particularly those dealing with poorly known organisms?

a) no

 

b) some opportunities

c) significant opportunities

 

54.  Is your country investing on a long-term basis in the development of appropriate infrastructure for your national taxonomic collections?

a) no

 

b) some investment

c) significant investment

 

55.  Is your country encouraging partnerships between taxonomic institutions in developed and developing countries?

a) no

 

b) yes – stated policy

c) yes – systematic national programme

 

56.  Has your country adopted any international agreed levels of collection housing?

a) no

 

b) under review

 

c) being implemented by some collections

d) being implemented by all major collections

 

57.  Has your country provided training programmes in taxonomy?

a) no

 

b) some

c) many

 

58.  Has your country reported on measures adopted to strengthen national capacity in taxonomy, to designate national reference centres, and to make information housed in collections available to countries of origin?

a) no

 

b) yes – in the previous national report

c) yes – via the clearing-house mechanism

 

d) yes - other means (please give details below)

 

59.  Has your country taken steps to ensure that institutions responsible for biological diversity inventories and taxonomic activities are financially and administratively stable?

a) no

 

b) under review

c) yes for some institutions

 

d) yes for all major institutions

 

60.  Has your country assisted taxonomic institutions to establish consortia to conduct regional projects?

a) no

 

b) under review

c) yes – limited extent

 

d) yes – significant extent

 

61.  Has your country given special attention to international funding of fellowships for specialist training abroad or for attracting international experts to national or regional courses?

a) no

 

b) under review

c) yes – limited extent

 

c) yes – significant extent

 

62.  Has your country provided programmes for re-training of qualified professionals moving into taxonomy-related fields?

a) no

 

b) some

c) many

 

 

Decision V/9. Global Taxonomy Initiative: Implementation and further advance of the Suggestions for Action

63.  Has your country identified its information requirements in the area of taxonomy, and assessed its national capacity to meet these requirements?

a) no

b) basic assessment

 

c) thorough assessment

 

64.  Has your country established or consolidated taxonomic reference centres?

a) no

b) yes

 

65.  Has your country worked to increase its capacity in the area of taxonomic research?

a) no

 

b) yes

66.  Has your country communicated information on programmes, projects and initiatives for consideration as pilot projects under the Global Taxonomy Initiative to the Executive Secretary?

a) no

b) yes

 

67.  Has your country designated a national Global Taxonomy Initiative focal point linked to other national focal points?

a) no

 

b) yes

68.  Has your country participated in the development of regional networks to facilitate information-sharing for the Global Taxonomy Initiative?

a) no

b) yes

 

If a developing country Party or Party with economy in transition -

69.  Has your country sought resources through the financial mechanism for the priority actions identified in the decision?

a) no

b) applied for unsuccessfully

 

c) applied for successfully

 

 

Further comments on implementation of these decisions

Taxonomy is a fundamental branch of science that has played an active role in the investigation, evaluation, planing and use of the biological resources in China. China conducted extensively the investigation on biological resources, and obtained a large collection of specimen and data of biological species. Many records have been compiled including, for example, China Flora Records, China Fauna Records, China Cryptogam Records, China Economic Flora Records, China Compendium of Birds, China Records of Economic Insects, China Inventory of Mammals, China Red Book on Flora, China Red Book on Rare and Endangered Animals, Yunan Flora Records, Hubei Flora Records, Groups and Distribution of Biological Species in Oceans in China, etc.

China allocates some financial resources to promote the biological taxonomy. The Chinese Academy of Sciences and some universities used to have strong institution and adequate infrastructure for taxonomy. Nevertheless, due the recent reduction of input and the change of subject structuring, the number of talented professionals on taxonomy lost severely. The educational bases are not adequate. The equipment is out of date. The renewal of collection is difficult. The management approach is behindhand. At present, we do not have the worldwide-accepted conditions for collection housing (climate control, fire-prevention system, control of diseases and pests, acceptable on-site health care, and degree of safety). In order to improve the collection housing, the Chinese government allocated RMB 313 million Yuan in 1998, for support the renovation of the collection housing conditions in over 10 houses under the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

China has not done the need assessment on national taxonomy, and has not formulated the national action plan for biological taxonomy. Although China has appointed a focal point for global initiative of taxonomy, it has not set up its national information center for biological taxonomy.

The Chinese Academy of Sciences and a few universities once convened some training on taxonomy, but the training used to focus on the academic exchange with little efforts being put on the professional and technical training. China encourages the bilateral and multilateral training for taxonomists, but it has no specific channel to facilitate the training on this aspect. China also lacks of the training program on biological taxonomy at the national level.

China encourages the partnership with the taxonomic institutions in both developed and developing countries. Nevertheless, due the lack of special funding from China and international assistance, the collaboration is difficult to conduct.

In order to make a change to the current status, China has to strengthen its capacity building on the biological taxonomy:

(1)   Establish the national action plan for taxonomy. Determine the needs for taxonomic information, identify the blocking factors, and raise the targets and plan of the capacity building for taxonomy in China;

(2)   Set up taxonomic centers at both national and local levels. Establish 5-10 comprehensive collection houses that have great significance with large scale. Provide stable financial support to them. And at the same time, select a series of collection houses that have local characteristics for construction of several local centers for taxonomy.

(3)   Strengthen the scientific study on biological taxonomy. Besides the work of investigation, discovery, description and cataloguing, conduct actively the intensive study on taxonomic issues related with key problems in the construction of national economy and the major issues of the taxonomy itself.

(4)   Strengthen the management of collection houses. Exchange experiences of collection housing extensively, explore multiple mechanisms for operation of collection houses, adopt effective measures to promote the modernised management of the collection houses.

(5)   Establish partnership between collection houses. Expand the scope and range of collections and information for exchange, encourage the sharing of collections and documents among researchers, and promote extensive collaboration between collection houses. Establish effective network system for sharing of information and knowledge, and provide all-direction services of biological collection and species information for the national economic construction and the sustainable development.

(6)   Establish extensive international cooperation. Establish contacts with other focal points in the world on the initiative of global taxonomy. Participate in the information exchange and communication networking, and change the collections with foreign houses under the principle for mutual benefits.

 

Article 8 In situ conservation [excluding Articles 8h and 8j]

70.  What is the relative priority afforded to implementation of this Article and the associated decisions by your country?

a)  High

b)  Medium

 

c)  Low

 

71.  To what extent are the resources available adequate for meeting the obligations and recommendations made?

a) Good

 

b) Adequate

 

c)  Limiting 

d)  Severely limiting

 

Further comments on relative priority and on availability of resources

In situ conservation is the major approach to the conservation of biological diversity. China attaches great importance to in situ conservation, and compiled the Compendium of Plan for Nature Reserve Development in China (1996-2010). It proposed staged targets and defined the specific performance indicators for each five-year plan of the national social and economic development. Even with the very limited finance resources, the state has strengthened the investment in in situ conservation. As of 2000, the coverage of nature reserves had reached 9.85% of the total territory of China, and a preliminary network of national reserves has been formed. Nevertheless, China is still a developing country and some remote mountainous areas are far from developed. Therefore, the work of in situ conservation is very heavy and the limited resources are far from adequate to meet the requirement of the in situ conservation of the biological diversity in China.

 

72.  Has your country established a system of protected areas which aims to conserve biological diversity (8a)?

a) system under development

 

b) national review of protected areas coverage available

 

c) national protected area systems plan in place

 

d) relatively complete system in place

73.  Are there nationally adopted guidelines for the selection, establishment and management of protected areas (8b)?

a) no

 

b) no, under development

 

c) yes

 

d) yes, undergoing review and extension

74.  Does your country regulate or manage biological resources important for the conservation of biological diversity with a view to ensuring their conservation and sustainable use (8c)?

a) no

 

b) early stages of development

 

c) advanced stages of development

 

d) programme or policy in place

      

e) reports on implementation available

 

75.  Has your country undertaken measures that promote the protection of ecosystems, natural habitats and the maintenance of viable populations of species in natural surroundings (8d)?

a) no measures

 

b) some measures in place

c) potential measures under review

 

d) reasonably comprehensive measures in place

 

76.  Has your country undertaken measures that promote environmentally sound and sustainable development in areas adjacent to protected areas (8e)?

a) no measures

 

b) some measures in place

 

c) potential measures under review

d) reasonably comprehensive measures in place

 

77.  Has your country undertaken measures to rehabilitate and restore degraded ecosystems (8f)?

a) no measures

 

b) some measures in place

c) potential measures under review

 

d) comprehensive measures in place

 

78.  Has your country undertaken measures to promote the recovery of threatened species (8f)?

a) no measures

 

b) some measures in place

c) potential measures under review

 

d) comprehensive measures in place

 

79.  Has your country undertaken measures to regulate, manage or control the risks associated with the use and release of living modified organisms resulting from biotechnology (8g)?

a) no measures

 

b) some measures in place

c) potential measures under review

 

d) comprehensive measures in place

 

80.  Has your country made attempts to provide the conditions needed for compatibility between present uses and the conservation of biological diversity and sustainable use of its components (8i)?

a) no

 

b) early stages of development

 

c) advanced stages of development

 

d) programme or policy in place

       

e) reports on implementation available

 

81.  Has your country developed and maintained the necessary legislation and/or other regulatory provisions for the protection of threatened species and populations (8k)?

a) no

 

b) early stages of development

 

c) advanced stages of development

 

d) legislation or other measures in place

       

82.  Does your country regulate or manage processes and categories of activities identified under Article 7 as having significant adverse effects on biological diversity (8l)?

a) no

 

b) under review

 

c) yes, to a limited extent

 

d) yes, to a significant extent

If a developed country Party -

83.  Does your country cooperate in providing financial and other support for in- situ conservation particularly to developing countries (8m)?

If a developing country Party or Party with economy in transition -

84.  Does your country receive financial and other support for in situ conservation (8m)?

a) no

 

b) yes (if so, please give details below)

 

Decision II/7 Consideration of Articles 6 and 8 of the Convention

85.  Is action being taken to share information and experience on implementation of this Article with other Contracting Parties?

a) little or no action

 

b) sharing of written materials and/or case‑studies

c) regional meetings

 

Further comments on implementation of this Article

China has done a lot in legislation, recovery and protection, conservation of rare and endangered species, and the international cooperation in the field of in situ conservation.

1.  Laws, regulations and standards on in situ conservation

In Law on Environmental Protection, Law on Forest, Law on Water, Law on Marine Environmental Protection, Law on Grassland, Law on Fishery, Law on Protection of Wild Animals, and Regulations on Protection of Wild Plants, specific provisions are provided for in situ conservation and the protection of wild fauna and flora. China also established regulations and standards specially for the protected areas, including, for example, Rules of Nature Reserve Management, Methods for Management of Nature Reserves of Forest and Wild Animals, Methods for Management of Marine Nature Reserves, Tentative Rules for Management of Scenic Spots, and Principles for the Designation of Categories and Classes of Natural Reserves.

2. Construction and management of facilities for in situ conservation

As of the end of 2000, China had established a total of 1227 nature reserves with total area reaching 98.208 million hectares, 9.85% of the total territory. Among these reserves, 155 are at national level. The nature reserves in China are more and more recognised in the world. 19 natural reserves have joined the World Man and Biosphere Protected Area Network, including Changbai Mountain, Wolong, Dinghu Mountain, Fanjing Mountain, Shennongjia, Wuyi Mountain, Bogeda Peak, Xilingele, Yancheng, Xishuangbanna, Tianmu Mountain, Maolin, Fenglin, Jiuzhaigou, Nanji Islands, Shankou, Huanglong, Gaoligong Mountain and Baishui River. Seven protected areas have been listed in the Inventory of Wetland of International Importance, including Zhalong, Xianghai, East Dongting Lake, Poyang Lake, Bird Island, Dongzhai Harbor and Mipu. Three natural reserves, i.e., Zhangjiajie, Jiuzhaigou and Huanglong are listed in the World Natural Heritages. By end of 2000, China had established 1050  forest parks of different types with total area 9.8253 million ha, of which 344 are national forest parks. China also established over 600 scenic spots, 9.6 million ha of total area, of which 119 are at national level. In addition, China also established 50319 small protected areas, covering 1.3558 million ha of area. A national network of in situ conservation has preliminarily formed. About 70% of inland ecosystems, 80% of wild faunas,  60% of plants, and especially most of the national key rare and endangered species have been given better protection in the protected areas.

From 1998 to 1999, China formulated the development plans for nature reserves in each province, autonomous region and municipalities. On basis of these plans, the national plan of nature reserve development has been formulated, and the targets and approaches to the construction of nature reserves for 2010 have been determined.

In 1998, the State Council issued the Notice on Further Strengthening the Management of Nature Reserves, requiring right co-ordination of the current and future benefits, the local and whole benefits, and the relation between development and protection. It timely stopped or corrected some construction projects that might otherwise bring adverse impacts on nature reserves. For example, according to the original plan, the Weining section in Guizhou of the Neikun railway would go through the experimental zone of Caohai Nature Reserve, and the passenger stations and cargo stations would be build in the protected area. SEPA, therefore, requested a special environmental assessment on this arrangement, and decided to stop the construction of passenger stations and cargo stations in the protection area. As a result, the adverse impacts on the species in the protected area were avoided.

For the problems encountered in the construction of nature reserves, some protected areas are seeking approaches and ways to co-ordinate the development of the protected areas and the development of the local communities, and have conducted management activities with community involvement. They also improved the knowledge and techniques of the local communities through training, in order to reverse the poverty status there by making income through multiple ways. For example, under the support from Ford Foundation, the Caohai National Nature Reserve implemented a project that combined the poverty relief and environmental protection. This is a typical example of success. The protection of the habitats critical for biological diversity is ensured through sustainable use of the natural resources.

3. Ecological recovery and protection

The State Council approved and promulgated the National Ecological Environment Construction Plan and the Compendium of National Ecological Environment Conservation, implementing the principle of “to protect the ecosystems and to construct the ecosystems at the same time” and “to attach equal importance to the pollution prevention and to the ecological conservation”. Deforestation on natural forests is prohibited, and the restoration and reconstruction of the degraded ecosystems are extensively conducted. Since the initiation of the pilot project of natural forest protection in 1998, a total of 51.33 million ha of forests, in upper reach of Yangtz River, in mid and upper reaches of Yellow River and in the Northeast and in Inner Mongolia, have been effectively protected. The recovered forestation area totalled 5.988 million ha. From December 6, 2000, the state started a comprehensive project for protection of natural forestry resources. The project consists of two major parts: one is to effectively protect the 917 million mu forest in upper reach of Yangtz and in mid/upper reach of Yellow River, to increase the grassland by 220 million mu, to increase the forest coverage by 130 million mu, therefore, making the forest coverage increased from 17.52% to 21.24%; the other part is to reduce the commercial timber production by 7.515 million cubic meters in key state-owned forestry areas in the Northeast and in Inner Mongolia, therefore, to effectively protect the 495 million mu of forest. As of the end of 2000, a total of 1.363 million ha of forests and grasslands had been restored from cultivated farmlands in 193 counties in 17 provinces and regions across the country.

4.  Protection of rare and threatened species

From 1997 to 1998, China promulgated the China Red Book on Endangered Faunas. The book composes of 4 volumes, covering species of birds, animals, amphibians/reptiles, and fishes. It provides the status and trend of species distribution and population, classes of being endangered and reasons for being threatened. In 1999, China promulgated the first batch of National Key Wild Flora under Protection, which includes 246 flora species in 8 categories.

A significant achievement has been made on the protection of the rare and endangered species in China. Thirty-three nature reserves for Giant Pandas have been established, with 165 thousand ha of the habitats and 643 thousand ha of protected area. During 1991 to 2000, China Research Center for Protection of Giant Panda, located in Wolong of Sichuan Province, bred 49 baby pandas in 32 embryos, of which 37 are survival. This made a wonder of artificial breeding of Giant Panda. The number of Nipponia nippon has increased from 7 when it was first found to more than 200, progressively breaking away from extinction. In Yangtze Crocodile Nature Reserve and Research Center for Artificial Breeding in Anhui Province, the number of Yangtze Crocodiles has increased from 200 to 9000 in ten years through artificial breeding. In Hainan Datian National Nature Reserve, the number of Eld's deer has increased from initial 26 to over 800. In Shishou Nature Reserve in Hubei Province and Dafeng Elk Nature Reserve in Jiangsu Province, the population of elks has reached over 600, and a successful test of wild breeding has been conducted. Germplasm resources of over a thousand of rare flora species and trees like Davidia involucrata, Cathaya argyrophyllaOrmosia hosiei have been effectively protected and got propagated in nature reserves.

5.  International cooperation on nature reserves

The construction and management of nature reserves in China have received broad attention and support from the international society. GEF has supported China on its management of nature reserves, conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, and the protection of bio-diversity in nature reserves in Luobupo of Xinjiang Region. Under the support of CIDA, China implemented the conservation of biological diversity and community development project in Inner Mongolia. The duration of the project is 5 years. It will establish demonstrations of biological diversity protection in Xieerduosi National Nature Reserve, Xilingele Grassland National Nature Reserve, Dalinuoer National Nature Reserve, Saihanwula Regional Nature Reserve, Lake Dalai National Nature Reserve, and Keerqin National Nature Reserve. China and the US have conducted a cooperative research on marine nature reserves. WWF continues its support on the protection of Giant Panda and its habitats, including projects of conservation and development in Pingwu of Sichuan, Baima Snow Mountain in Yunnan and the surroundings. IFAW has supported the national evaluation and selection for commending outstanding organizations and individuals in the management of nature reserves. It also supported the activities for anti-poaching of Tibet antelopes in Aerjin Mountain National Nature Reserve in Xinjiang and the Kekexili National Nature Reserve in Qinghai.

6.        Works of in situ conservation that need immediate action

Although China has made significant progress in the in situ conservation of biological diversity, there are still many urgent works in the aspects of legislation, standardization, construction of protective facilities, scientific management, researches, education, and international cooperation.

(1)   Formulate the law on nature reserves or the law on nature conservation, in order to integrate the planning of nature reserve development into the national plan of social and economic development, and to clarify the financial resources for the operation of the nature reserves.

(2)   Revise the standards for categorization of the nature reserves. Establish the uniformed method of management of nature reserves, forest parks and scenic spots. Formulate regulations for management of the construction, protection, resource utilization and personnel training in nature reserves.

(3)   Improve and strengthen the law enforcement for management of the nature reserves.

(4)   Strengthen the infrastructure construction in nature reserves to raise efficiency of the management. Promote the coordination of development of nature reserves and the development of local communities. Strengthen the construction of small protected areas outside the nature reserves. Improve the network system of the nature reserves.

(5)   Conduct scientific researches on nature reserves actively. Establish technical systems for investigation, assessment, planning, construction and management for nature reserves.

(6)   Strengthen training for personnel of nature reserves.

(7)   Make full use of the advantages of nature reserves to conduct diversified education and publicity activities on conservation of biological diversity.

(8)            Strengthen international cooperation in nature reserves to internationalize the nature reserves that have important significance and scientific value, and to seek more technical and financial support from international society.

 

Article 8h Alien species

86.  What is the relative priority afforded to implementation of this Article and the associated decisions by your country?

a)  High

b)  Medium

 

c)  Low

 

87.  To what extent are the resources available adequate for meeting the obligations and recommendations made?

a) Good

 

b) Adequate

 

c)  Limiting 

d)  Severely limiting

 

Further comments on relative priority and on availability of resources

China has a large territory and is rich of biological species. It also has a long history of introducing alien species, especially those beneficial species. The introduction of alien species gives benefits to China’s economy, whereas many introduced species also made severe natural disasters, resulting in damages to its biological diversity and great loses of the economy. The impact of introducing alien invasive species is extensive and potential, and often irreversible. As the globalisation of economic development and China’s acceding  to WTO are accelerated, more and more exchanges of species will happen, hence increasing the risk of introducing harmful species on purpose. Meanwhile, the possibility of accidental introduction of alien species will also increase due to the development of tourism and transportation. Therefore, the Chinese government attaches great importance to the prevention, control or eradication of the alien species threatening the ecosystems, living habitats or species.

China is a developing country with large territory. The resources for prevention, control and eradicate the harmful alien species are limited.

 

88.  Has your country identified alien species introduced?

a) no

 

b) only major species of concern

c) only new or recent introductions

 

d) a comprehensive system tracks new introductions

 

e) a comprehensive system tracks all known introductions

 

89.  Has your country assessed the risks posed to ecosystems, habitats or species by the introduction of these alien species?

a) no

 

b) only some alien species of concern have been assessed

c) most alien species have been assessed

 

90.  Has your country undertaken measures to prevent the introduction of, control or eradicate those alien species which threaten ecosystems, habitats or species?

a) no measures

 

b) some measures in place

c) potential measures under review

 

d) comprehensive measures in place

 

 

Decision IV/1 Report and recommendations of the third meeting of SBSTTA

91.  Is your country collaborating in the development of projects at national, regional, sub-regional and international levels to address the issue of alien species?

a) little or no action

 

b) discussion on potential projects under way

c) active development of new projects

 

92.  Does your national strategy and action plan address the issue of alien species?

a) no

 

b) yes – limited extent

c) yes – significant extent

 

 

Decision V/8. Alien species that threaten ecosystems, habitats or species

93.  Is your country applying the interim guiding principles for prevention, introduction and mitigation of impacts of alien species in the context of activities aimed at implementing article 8(h) of the Convention, and in the various sectors?

a) no

 

b) under consideration

 

c) limited implementation in some sectors

 

d) extensive implementation in some sectors

e) extensive implementation in most sectors

 

94.  Has your country submitted case-studies to the Executive Secretary focusing on thematic assessments?

a) no

 

b) in preparation

 

c) yes

95.  Has your country submitted written comments on the interim guiding principles to the Executive Secretary?

a) no

b) yes

 

96.  Has your country given priority to the development and implementation of alien invasive species strategies and action plans?

a) no

 

b) yes

97.  In dealing with the issue of invasive species, has your country developed or involved itself in mechanisms for international co-operation, including the exchange of best practices?

a) no

 

b) trans-boundary co-operation

 

c) regional co-operation

d) multilateral co-operation

 

98.  Is your country giving priority attention to geographically and evolutionarily isolated ecosystems in its work on alien invasive species?

a) no

 

b) yes

99.  Is your country using the ecosystem approach and precautionary and bio-geographical approaches as appropriate in its work on alien invasive species?

a) no

 

b) yes

100.          Has your country developed effective education, training and public-awareness measures concerning the issue of alien species?

a) no

 

b) some initiatives

c) many initiatives

 

101.          Is your country making available the information which it holds on alien species through the CHM?

a) no

 

b) some information

 

c) all available information

d) information available through other channels (please specify)

 

102.          Is your country providing support to enable the Global Invasive Species Programme to fulfil the tasks outlined in the decision and its annexes?

a) no

 

b) limited support

c) substantial support

 

 

Further comments on implementation of this Article

China attaches great importance to the prevention and control of alien invasive species. Some policies and regulations have been formulated and the corresponding control measures have been adopted. However, there are still many problems to be solved.

1.  Policies, laws and regulations concerning the prevention and control of alien invasive species

The Quarantine Law on Import and Export of Animals and Plants has set up the clear stipulations for the work in this regard. The Protection Law for Wildlife has also the regulations on the intentional import of the alien species.

To prevent the diseases like mad cow and mouth-foot from entering China, the Chinese government has launched sets of official notifications to forbid direct and indirect import from those countries that suffer from “mad cow diseases” of cow, cow embryo, sperm, beef and the beef products and ruminant foodstuff. It is forbidden to import the artiodactyl and its products from those countries with foot and mouth diseases. Strict quarantine controlling work has been undertaken to those passengers and goods that come from the “epidemic areas”. These regulations have played an important role in prevent those pathogens getting into China in the emergent situations.

In the Compendium of National Ecological Conservation, it is for the first time to put forward the concept for bio-safety in China. The Article 14 of the Compendium says, “all the alien species have to undertake the risk assessments. The import quarantine work has to be strengthened to prevent any alien invasive species from entering into China”. However, China Biodiversity Conservation Action Plan does not involve much on the alien species and up to now there is no specific established action plan against the alien invasive species.

2.  The present status of and controlling over alien invasive species

Several rounds of survey have been conducted in China on alien invasive species. According to incomplete statistics, all together China has 107 species and 75 genera of alien weeds, including mainly Alternanthera philoxeroides, Eupatorium adenophorum, Ambrosia artemisiifolia and A. Trifida etc. Among those species, 62 kinds are alien weeds, which have been imported intentionally for pasture, foodstuff, vegetable, ornamentals, herbs and greening plants, representing 58% of the total amount. The others are introduced unintentionally through goods shipment, passengers or transportation and through natural spreading and dissemination.

There are 32 kinds of major alien pests in China, including Hyphantria cunea, Hemiberlesia pitysophila Takagi; 23 kinds of alien pathogens, like Ceratocystis fimbriata Ell.et halst, Fusarium vasifectum etc. In most cases, the alien pests and pathogens are imported unintentionally together with other plants or goods. Of course, some of them are spread and got into China naturally.

China has also introduced large amount of germplasm resources of crops, livestock and poultry and aquatic products.

Alien invasive species has created huge damage to China ecosystems, wildlife and genetic resources. Each year the invasive pests have caused 7-8 billion Chinese Yuan losses in China. Bursaphelenchus xylophilus is closing in on the Huangshan Mountain located in Anhui Province and Xihu Lake located in Zhejiang Province. The damage of pine-needle scale insect (Hemiberlesia pitysophila) and Oracella acuta is increasing. 

According to incomplete investigation and statistics, the alien weeds has created as high as 9 billion Chinese Yuan losses for China agriculture.  The damage caused by Eichhornia crassipes to Dianchi Lake in Yunnan Province is very severe, and the threats of Spartina anglica to biodiversity in southeastern coastal China have not been effectively alleviated.  Mikania micrantha has propagated  very fast  and caused catastrophe in some regions.

While the introduction of alien productive species has promoted the development of China agriculture and husbandry; at the same time, the native species has been replaced or reduced gradually, or even diminished. For example, total endangered livestock species amount to 10.4% of the native species and the extinct livestock species account for 3%.

Facing with all those damages caused by the alien invasive species, China has strengthened the management over quarantine systems to prevent the invasion of alien species. There are over 200 quarantine departments established at the ports, which formulate a comparatively complete supervision and monitoring network. For example, after the Sino-US Agreement on Agriculture Cooperation has been signed by the two governments, China has been seriously implement this Agreement by conducting strict quarantine work over wheat and other grains. In addition, China has also established the approval procedure and system on aquatic and terrestrial wildlife. 

To fight against alien invasive pests, China has adopted physical, chemical, biological and agricultural comprehensive control measures. Great progress has been reached on bio-control technologies. The introduction of bio-control agent and the development of native bio-control agent have been applied into fall webworm (Hyphantria cunea), pine-needle scale insect (Hemiberlesia pitysophila) and Oracella acuta, with encouraging progress and  obvious effect. From 1996 to 2000, 35 institutions have introduced 63 kinds(times) of bio-control agents from 25 countries, among which the Encarsia formosa, Typhlodromus occidentalis, Phytoseiulus persimilis and Xylocoris flavipes etc. are proved to be very successful. Transgenic Chinese white polar with pest resistance show high resistance to alien pests such as fall webworm.

Work on education and publicity enhancement has also been carried out; yet no systematic education, training and dissemination plan have into existence.

In Oct. 1999, China has submitted the case study on prevention, controlling and eradication of alien invasive species to the Secretariat. However, China does not have much chance to conduct international cooperation in this regard and lacks the expertise. That is why China could not make written comments to the provisional guidance.

3.  The priority work in prevention and control of alien invasive species

(1) To establish and perfect the legislation systems to intensify the safety management on alien invasive species that are introduced intentionally or unintentionally.

(2) To conduct national survey over alien invasive species to identify species, number, distribution and functions of alien invasive species and to establish databases.

(3)    To analyze the impacts generated by alien species on China ecosystems and species, and to establish risk assessment indicator system, risk assessment methods and risk management procedures for alien species that threat ecosystems, habitats and species.

(4)     To establish the monitoring system over alien invasive species

(5)    To strengthen the public education on the impacts caused by alien species and enhance the awareness of prevention.

(6)    To establish training programs on identification of alien invasive species, prevention and controlling technologies, risk assessment technologies and risk management.

(7)    To strengthen international cooperation and  information exchange on management, prevention and control technology of alien invasive species and to enhance national administrative capacity and expertise.  

 

 

Article 8j Traditional knowledge and related provisions

103.          What is the relative priority afforded to implementation of this Article and the associated decisions by your country?

a)  High

b)  Medium

 

c)  Low

 

104.          To what extent are the resources available adequate for meeting the obligations and recommendations made?

a) Good

 

b) Adequate

 

c)  Limiting 

d)  Severely limiting

 

Further comments on relative priority and on availability of resources

China is a civilized old country with a long history, and has accumulated rich traditional knowledge, innovations and practices in its thousands of years of agricultural production. China also has multiple nationalities. Even in today’s civilized world, many farmers living in remote mountainous areas, especially the minorities, still inherit, use and develop the traditional knowledge and practices that are beneficial to the conservation and sustainable use of the biological diversity. The Chinese government attaches great importance to the maintaining and use of the traditional knowledge, innovations and practices, and stresses the equitable sharing of the benefit from the traditional knowledge, initiatives and practices.

China is a country with multiple nationalities. The people of these nationalities have accumulated very rich traditional knowledge in their long term practice of production and living. The Chinese government fully respects and protects the traditional knowledge. However, the resources available for meeting the obligations and recommendations made on this Article are limited due to the lack of policies and mechanism for sharing the benefits from the traditional knowledge, innovations and practices as well as the limitation of the financial capacity of the country.

 

105.          Has your country undertaken measures to ensure that the knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and local communities embodying traditional lifestyles relevant for the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity are respected, preserved and maintained?

a) no measures

 

b) some measures in place

c) potential measures under review

 

d) comprehensive measures in place

 

106.          Is your country working to encourage the equitable sharing of benefits arising from the utilization of such knowledge, innovations and practices?

a) no

 

b) early stages of development

 

c) advanced stages of development

d) programme or policy in place

 

 

Decision III/4 and Decision IV/9. Implementation of Article 8(j)

107.          Has your country developed national legislation and corresponding strategies for the implementation of Article 8(j)?

a) no

 

b) early stages of development

c) advanced stages of development

 

d) legislation or other measures in place

 

108.          Has your country supplied information on the implementation of Article 8(j) to other Contracting Parties through media such as the national report?

a) no

 

b) yes - previous national report

c) yes - CHM

 

d) yes - other means (please give details below)

 

109.          Has your country submitted case‑studies to the Executive Secretary on measures taken to develop and implement the Convention’s provisions relating to indigenous and local communities?

a) no

 

b) yes

110.          Is your country participating in appropriate working groups and meetings?

a) none

 

b) some

c) all

 

111.          Is your country facilitating the active participation of representatives of indigenous and local communities in these working groups and meetings?

a) no

 

b) yes

 

Decision V/16. Article 8(j) and related provisions

112.          Has your country reviewed the programme of work specified in the annex to the decision, and identified how to implement those tasks appropriate to national circumstances?

a) no

 

b) under review

c) yes (please provide details)

 

113.          Is your country integrating such tasks into its ongoing programmes, taking into account the identified collaboration opportunities?

a) no

 

b) not appropriate to national circumstances

 

c) yes – to a limited extent

 

d) yes – to a significant extent

114.          Is your country taking full account of existing instruments, guidelines, codes and other relevant activities in the implementation of the programme of work?

a) no

 

b) not appropriate to national circumstances

 

c) yes – to a limited extent

 

d) yes – to a significant extent

115.          Has your country provided appropriate financial support for the implementation of the programme of work?

a) no

 

b) not appropriate to national circumstances

 

c) yes – to a limited extent

d) yes – to a significant extent

 

116.          Has your country fully incorporated women and women’s organizations in the activities undertaken to implement the programme of work contained in the annex to the decision and other relevant activities under the Convention?

a) no

 

b) yes

117.          Has your country taken measures to facilitate the full and effective participation of indigenous and local communities in the implementation of the Convention?

a) no

 

b) not appropriate to national circumstances

 

c) yes – to a limited extent

 

d) yes – to a significant extent

118.          Has your country provided case studies on methods and approaches concerning the preservation and sharing of traditional knowledge, and the control of that information by indigenous and local communities?

a) no

 

b) not relevant

 

c) yes – sent to the Secretariat

d) yes – through the national CHM

 

e) yes – available through other means (please specify)

 

119.          Does your country exchange information and share experiences regarding national legislation and other measures for the protection of the knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and local communities?

a) no

 

b) not relevant

 

c) yes – through the CHM

d) yes – with specific countries

 

e) yes – available through other means (please specify)

 

120.          Has your country taken measures to promote the conservation and maintenance of knowledge, innovations, and practices of indigenous and local communities?

a) no

 

b) not relevant

 

c) some measures

d) extensive measures

 

121.          Has your country supported the development of registers of traditional knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and local communities, in collaboration with these communities?

a) no

 

b) not relevant

 

c) development in progress

d) register fully developed

 

122.          Have representatives of indigenous and local community organizations participated in your official delegation to meetings held under the Convention on Biological Diversity?

a) not relevant

 

b) not appropriate

 

c) yes

123.          Is your country assisting the Secretariat to fully utilize the clearing-house mechanism to co-operate closely with indigenous and local communities to explore ways that enable them to make informed decisions concerning release of their traditional knowledge?

a) no

 

b) awaiting information on how to proceed

c) yes

 

124.          Has your country identified resources for funding the activities identified in the decision?

a) no

 

b) not relevant

 

c) partly

d) fully

 

 

Further comments on implementation of this Article

China has a long civilised history of five thousand years and has 55 minorities. The Chinese people created diversified traditional culture and knowledge in the past long history, which played an important role in the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity in China.

1.  Relevant policies

Policies and regulation in China fully respect the rights of minorities and local communities, respect the traditional living style of the local communities beneficial to the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, support the minorities and local communities to participate in the activities in conformity with the objectives of the Convention, and promote the sum-up, inheriting and developing of the traditional knowledge.

China has established a relatively perfect intellectual property right system, but the traditional knowledge is not protected by the current system. For example, the flora species with unmodified genes, such as wild species and original plants planted by farmers, are treated as free-access goods. In the negotiation on International Agreement on Plant Heredity Resources, China supports the aim of the Convention on Biological Diversity, actively promotes the establishment of the multilateral system of access and benefit sharing of the plant heredity resources, and insists on the equitable sharing of the benefits resulted from the access of heredity resources through multilateral system to realize the rights of the farmers.

2.  Sum-up and maintenance of traditional knowledge

Under the assistance of relevant international organizations, China actively conducted the sum-up and conservation of the traditional knowledge. The Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science, in cooperation with the International Research Institute of Plant Heredity Resources, conducted a study and investigation on the taros in Yunnan regarding their heredity diversity, planting, storage, processing and use. The study showed that the local farmers were able to effectively maintain and manage the species diversity.

Under the financial support from Ford Foundation, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, conducted an investigation on the traditional slash-and-burn cultivation in Hani and Jinuo minority communities. The study showed that many traditional approaches stressed the conservation of forests. In lands after the slash-and-burn cultivation, some flora species with special economic and ecological values are often reserved, including banyan, wild mango and timber species. The traditional management approaches have played an indelible active role in the conservation of biological diversity.

The Ford Foundation also provided financial support to the Xishuanbannai Tropical Arboretum in Yunnan to study the relationship between arboretum and the traditional religion (Buddhism) of Dai Nationality and the roles of religion in the conservation of biological diversity. Over 100 botanic species are regarded having important significance on the religions.

3.  Participation of minorities and local communities in the conservation of biological diversity

With the assistance of international organizations, some nature reserves performed the management with the participation of local communities. The local communities and women are attracted and encouraged to the management of the nature reserves. Many famous spots of Taoism and Buddhism, as well as other “Spirit Mountains” are places where the biological resources are better protected. Through setup of rules and conventions by local people, the good traditional knowledge is maintained and developed, and the conservation of biological diversity is facilitated. For example, there are 400 “spirit mountains” in Xishuangbanna. These “spirit mountains” have been protected by the local communities of Dai Nationality.

4.  Problems encountered in the maintenance and use of traditional knowledge

Although some progress has been made in the conservation of traditional knowledge in China, the traditional knowledge, innovations and practices are scattered greatly among local people and have not been better summed up. Along with the process of modernization, the eminent national traditional cultures are dying away gradually. There is inadequate awareness on the conservation of traditional knowledge, and the national policies, strategies and legislation in this field are still very weak. The mechanism of equitable sharing of benefits from the utilization of traditional knowledge, innovations and practices has not been established. The national capacity and technologies for conservation of traditional knowledge are still weak.

 

Article 9 Ex situ conservation

125.          What is the relative priority afforded to implementation of this Article and the associated decisions by your country?

a)  High

b)  Medium

 

c)  Low

 

126.          To what extent are the resources available adequate for meeting the obligations and recommendations made?

a) Good

 

b) Adequate

 

c)  Limiting 

d)  Severely limiting

 

Further comments on relative priority and on availability of resources

China attaches great importance to the ex situ conservation of biological diversity, and has established many ex situ conservation bases such as zoos, centres for feeding and caring of the rare animals, arboretums, germplasm houses (nurseries) and species bases.

Significant progress has been made in the facility construction, scientific research and protection achievements for ex situ conservation in China, whereas the financial resources allocated for ex situ conservation are limited in general. The work of ex situ conservation should be strengthened and supported in policy and financial aspects. The current available facilities for ex situ conservation should be fully utilised. Meanwhile, China should also actively seek support of advanced technologies and financial resources from the international society.

 

127.          Has your country adopted measures for the ex situ conservation of components of biological diversity native to your country (9a)?

a) no measures

 

b) some measures in place

c) potential measures under review

 

d) comprehensive measures in place

 

128.          Has your country adopted measures for the ex situ conservation of components of biological diversity originating outside your country (9a)?

a) no measures

 

b) some measures in place

c) potential measures under review

 

d) comprehensive measures in place

 

129.          If the answer to the previous question was yes, is this being done in active collaboration with organizations in the other countries (9a)?

a) no

 

b) yes

130.          Has your country established and maintained facilities for the ex situ conservation of and research on plants, animals and micro-organisms that represent genetic resources native to your country (9b)?

a) no

 

b) yes – limited extent

 

c) yes – significant extent

131.          Has your country established and maintained facilities for the ex situ conservation of and research on plants, animals and micro-organisms that represent genetic resources originating elsewhere (9b)?

a) no

 

b) yes – limited extent

c) yes – significant extent

 

132.          If the answer to the previous question was yes, is this being done in active collaboration with organizations in the other countries (9a)?

a) no

 

b) yes

133.          Has your country adopted measures for the reintroduction of threatened species into their natural habitats under appropriate conditions (9c)?

a) no measures

 

b) some measures in place

c) potential measures under review

 

d) comprehensive measures in place

 

134.          Has your country taken measures to regulate and manage the collection of biological resources from natural habitats for ex situ conservation purposes so as not to threaten ecosystems and in situ populations of species (9d)?

a) no measures

 

b) some measures in place

c) potential measures under review

 

d) comprehensive measures in place

 

If a developed country Party -

135.          Has your country cooperated in providing financial and other support for ex situ conservation and in the establishment and maintenance of ex situ conservation facilities in developing countries (9e)?

If a developing country Party or Party with economy in transition -

136.          Has your country received financial and other support for ex situ conservation and in the establishment and maintenance of ex situ conservation facilities (9e)?

a) no

 

b) yes

 

Further comments on implementation of this Article

1.  Laws and regulations on ex situ conservation in China

The Law on Protection of Wild Animals stipulates: The State shall carry out the policy of strengthening the resource conservation, domesticating and reproducing actively, and developing and using rationally; shall encourage the domestication and reproduction of the wild animals, and the license for such domestication and reproduction should be obtained for key wild animals under protection of the State. The Rules for Protection of Wild Plants stipulates: The State shall encourage and support the scientific research, in situ conservation and ex situ conservation of the wild plants; for any collection of first-class national protected wild plants, for the purposes of scientific research, artificial cultivation or cultural exchange, the collection permit must be applied from wild plant administration of State Council or its authorized organization after obtaining signed comments from the wild plant administrative department of the government of local province, autonomous region or municipality; for any collection of second-class national protected wild plants, the collection permit must be applied from wild plant administrative department of province, autonomous region or municipality or its authorized organization after obtaining signed comments from the wild plant administrative bureau of the government of the county where the collection is to take place. The Rules for Protection of Terrestrial Wild Animals stipulates: for any hunting and catching of key national protected wild animals, for the purposes of scientific investigation, domestication and reproduction, scientific study and teaching, the hunting/catching permit must be applied. The Rules for Implementation of Protection of Aquatic Wild Animals also defines provisions of the licensing system for domestication and catching.

2.  Present status of ex situ conservation in China

(1) Ex situ conservation of plants

By 2000, there are over 140 arboretums across the country, growing about 18000 flora species native to China, about 65% of total native species. Newly constructed arboretums include the Three-Gorges Arboretum, Baoding Arboretum in Hebei and Shijiazhuang Arboretum. The Tianjing Arboretum is in construction. In Xishuangbanna Arboretum, an ex situ ptrotected area, about 80 ha, has been established for endangered flora species native to South Yunnan. It is also planned to construct a branch of Xishuangbanna Arboretum in Yuanjiang.

China has constructed a long-term national storehouse and a backup storehouse of crop germplasm resources in Beijing and Qinghai respectively; 27 mid-term storehouses of crop germplasm resources, and 32 gardens of perennial plants and wild relatives of crops were established; 160 species of crops and 370000 pieces of crop germplasm resources have been kept in storehouses and evaluated in terms of catalogues, agronomic properties, quality, pressure, disease and pest resistance, and China Crop Germplasm Resource Information System is also established.

(2) Ex situ conservation of wild animals

By 2000, there are about 200 zoos and wild animal gardens, over 230 artificial breeding farms of wild animals, over 20 aquariums, about 10 bird gardens across the country, and 14 rescue and breeding centers for endangered animals such as Panthera tigris altais, David's deer (Elaphurus davidianus), Equus przewalskii, Saiga tatarica, Nipponia nippon, and Alligator sinensis have been established. There are also comprehensive storehouses of fresh water fish germplasm resources, cold semen houses of fish, and semen and embryo houses of experimental oxen and sheep. 

 During 1996 to 2000, 64 baby giant pandas in 45 embryos were bred in Wolong, Chengdu, Beijing, Chongqing, and Shanghai, of which 50 are survival. In 1999, captive south China tiger (Panthera tigris amoyensis) gave 10 babies, of which 1 was dead, with survival rate 90%. The number of captive south China tiger has increased from 47 in 1995 to 58 in 1999. The number of Nipponia nippon has increased from 7 when it was first found to more than 200. In Yangtze Crocodile Nature Reserve and Research Center for Artificial Breeding in Anhui Province, the number of Yangtze Crocodiles has increased from 200 to 9000 in ten years through artificial breeding. In Hainan Datian National Nature Reserve, the number of Eld's deer has increased from initial 26 to over 800. In Shishou Nature Reserve in Hubei Province and Dafeng Elk Nature Reserve in Jiangsu Province, the population of elks has reached over 600, and a successful test of wild breeding has been conducted.

3.  Status of scientific research on ex situ conservation in China

Studies on the introduction of plants and the mechanism by which rare plants become endangered have been extensively conducted in introduction and propagation bases across the country, over 100 rare and endangered plants such as Davidia involucrata, Alsophila spinulosa, Camellia petelotii, Cathaya argyrophyllOstrya rehderiana, Abies beshanzuensis, and Carpinus putoensis, have been successfully propagated. 

Artificial breeding has been conducted for rare and endangered animals such as giant pandas, Nipponia nippon, Rhinopithecus spp., Panthera tigris amoyensis, and red-crowned crane in zoos and wild animal breeding bases across the country, encouraging progress has been achieved, and the bred population are effectively increased.  " The Establishment of DNA Fingerprint Probe and Extraction Methods for Giant Panda " was awarded Second State Prize of Technology and Creation.

The international and national spectrums that were modified and finished in 1999 include giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca), south China tiger (Panthera tigris amoyensis), black-necked crane (Grus nigricollis), Ciconia ciconia, Budorcas taxicolor, Rhinopithecus spp., Grus leucogeranus, and red-crowned crane, among which the spectrums of giant panda, south China tiger, black-necked crane and Ciconia ciconia were integrated into the International Species Information System (ISIS).

4.  Reintroduction of captive rare animals into natural habitats

Wild and semi-wild elk population has been established in Jiangsu, Hubei and Beijing. Plants with high economic values such as metasequoia and eucommia have been artificially cultivated in large areas, however, most rare wild plants, limited by mechanism and budget, have not been reintroduced into wild habitats.

5.  International cooperation on ex situ conservation

China and US have cooperated on the research on giant panda breeding and germplasm resources. The study of giant panda breeding was also conducted with Japan. China has carried out many studies on germplasm resources with Australia, Great Britain, International Agricultural Organization, and International Institute on Botanic Genetic Resources. The study on nutrition, management, and veterinary of giant pandas and tigers were also conducted with IUCN.

6.  The urgent work to be conducted for ex situ conservation

(1)    Perfect laws, regulations, standards, and guidelines for ex situ conservation, to improve the effectiveness of ex situ conservation;

(2)    Perfect existing and build new wild animal breeding and rescue centers, and ex situ conservation centers for rare and endangered aquatic animals, perfect the construction  of zoo facility in capital cities of provinces across the country;

(3)    Establish some ex situ conservation gardens for specific botanic families and genera, construct a series of breeding bases for rare and endangered plants, and set up some botanic gardens in new middle and small scaled cities;

(4)    Establish some cultivation bases for medicinal plants;

(5)    Strengthen the appraisal and assessment of crop germplasm resources kept in storage, establish core samples, in order to provide more high quality germplasm resources for breeding and production, and to improve the utilization of resources kept in storage;

(6)    Implement reintroduction of some plants into wild habitats;

(7)    Strengthen the research on the behavior, nutrition, breeding, diseases, reintroduction of wild animals, and intensify the research on wild plant introduction and preservation, and germplasm resource appraisal.

(8)    Strengthen international cooperation on ex situ conservation, so as to provide advanced technology and sufficient funds for ex situ conservation.

 


Article 10 Sustainable use of components of biological diversity

137.          What is the relative priority afforded to implementation of this Article and the associated decisions by your country?

a)  High

b)  Medium

 

c)  Low

 

138.          To what extent are the resources available adequate for meeting the obligations and recommendations made?

a) Good

 

b) Adequate

 

c)  Limiting 

d)  Severely limiting

 

Further comments on relative priority and on availability of resources

The biological diversity plays an important role in the national economic and social development. It has great economic value, directly and indirectly. The direct economic value mainly refers that it provides the human with the basic necessities for cloths, foods and shelters as well as the raw materials of important industries like timber, fiber, oil and rubber, and medicinal materials. The indirect economic value represents its functions for maintenance of energy flow, cleanup of the environment, improvement of the soil, conservation of water sources, adjustment of microclimate, and sustaining the biological evolution. The conservation of biological diversity and sustainable use of its components are required by the sustainable development strategy of China.

China has provided huge manpower and financial resources in the conservation of biological diversity and the sustainable use of its components. However, the efforts are still inadequate as compared to the requirements of the Convention. The comprehensive implementation of the convention requires more financial and human resources, which is beyond China’s original capacity of investment. Large gap exists between demand and supply of funds.

 

139.          Has your country integrated consideration of the conservation and sustainable use of biological resources into national decision making (10a)?

a) no

 

b) early stages of development

 

c) advanced stages of development

 

d) programme or policy in place

     

e) review of implementation available

 

140.          Has your country adopted measures relating to the use of biological resources that avoid or minimize adverse impacts on biological diversity (10b)?

a) no measures